1 1, e. MV5EVMoFTHEAnEILICAN INDIAN.' MMMIUM 'i'ii'li''""""""llllllllllllllllllllJlllllllllliHI''.l!l"'.'''Pmilll I I'l 'i I' ii'l IIMIIllllllllllllllllMWMIMt Huntington Free Library Native American Collection CORNELL UNIVERSITY LIBRARY ^1924 104 081 215 ^« Cornell University Library The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library. There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text. http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924104081215 €arlp iWapjS of tlje Connecticut VMtv in iKasigacfjusiettg Wright & DeForest Springfield, Massachusetts [ilUSEUM OF AMERICAS ItUIAN This volume was issued in the month of July, Nineteen Hundred and Eleven, and is one of Two Hundred Copies, of which this copy is No. Contents 1636 — A Modern Map of Indian Localities and Trails About Springfield ...... 1 1642— Woodward & Saffrey's "Bay Path" Map ... 2 1650 — Vonder Donck's Map of the Connecticut Valley . 3 1803 — The Agawam River in West Springfield . . 4 1795 — Springfield, including Chicopee .... 5 1795 — West Springfield, including Holyoke and Agawam . . 6 1794— Greenfield 7 1794 — -Northampton ... ... 8 1794— Deerfield ... ... 9 1827— Holyoke 10 1827 — Springfield, including Chicopee .... 11 H ■s Indian Trails About Springfield 0. All early accounts indicate that from a period long prior to the coming of the Whites, the Indians were familair with places often hundreds of miles distant, one from the other, and that they traveled over the same route in coming and going. The constant passing over the same path, year after year, and generation after generation, often so packed the soil that the paths are still traceable by the depressions in the soil, or by the absence or a difference in the vegetation. Many of them have been obliterated by roads and railways of modern limes. Owing to the Indians' habit of marching in single file the trails rarely exceed 18 inches in width, yet these were the ordinary roads of the country. They always followed the line of the least natural resistance. Many of them were originally tracks made by the deer in their seasonal migrations between feeding grounds; some of them remain worn two feet deep into the ground. Some of these trails were located by documentary evidence. Sometimes an old deed or a grant of land gives a clue, being located on a trail or being bounded by a trail. In 1660, land was granted that "lyes by the path to Moheage." The records of 1646 speak of "the playne in the Bay Path." The first trail east of the river is the present Main street; the next eas-t is Maple, Chestnut and Springfield street to Chicopee, where it crossed the Chicopee river "above the island where the Indian's common wading place is," as the early record reads. On the right from the Indian Fort is the trail which is now Mill, Pine, Walnut, Oak and St. James avenue to Chicopee Falls. The trail crossed the Chicopee river, at the low water below the Falls at Scanunganuck, now Chicopee Falls. The Bay Path came into this trail from Boston, followed it to the Fort and continued across the Connecticut river, then on to Westfield, Great Harrington, Albany and Buffalo. It crossed the Connecticut river just below the South End bridge. Before the Agawam was changed, there was a sand bar at that point so that it was possible to walk across the river at low water. Changes in the current have since washed the bar away. The trail going south, west of the river, went to Windsor, where there were large tribes. The most southeasterly one went to the Pequots and the Mohegans, and was known to Pynchon as the "Pequit path that goes to Moheag." A dcscrrprion of ihe cxfcnh of The bounds of f^&sa&chuscrrs Baif Pafenr sourhward li^jng m 4tdeg 55 minute Latr ; crossing Conechcorr river ac Windsor ferq pla.ce. The house of John Bt5 -sell beings on rhe west 5ide B.nd rh*- Widow Grbb^ hir house on rhc e^L«^ Side of The ri^/er . /\lSo A dcscripCion of th* -niosr reinarH&bU riveKS, brooks, ponds, hills, pUijns, sw/amps. siru&tion of IndiAns discoverd b^ rtie H^aift wirh Lftrr of Spring'ffeld. 4Z aeg Gmmurts >.nd the vr&dmg hows* of Oronoco The W" of 4« -4" mo"^ IC4Z. The iriiles &r« as 60 is to ^9'/m in proporhon ro fhe ordenarif cti&i^ne mites c»nlAintng 3'?0 rods or 6 furlong^B Bif Kath Woodm^rd Solomon SAfferij Ch&rles river J**,!! ot Ch^.r^^9 River Wathugef h<il ..//f-l/'- I w«H oo»t'^ ■&' ,., 1''" iVUn t*tf««'p«wki«if 'G«*d sivktnp *' tipnaf I Wig-wam I?. HighHills ••"I"' ■Spnng-fleld Oronoco — .^^^^tSi*^''" ' Th« Fills -^7 High hills Pend "SkwhiUB Greftf pond The Sou^hermosr p&rAllet tine of the n&ss&chuseHa Ba^ Iw'n^ 'n Lilt 41 degrees 55 mmures Norrh LmI Thff riwcr. comaf avr af the pond The pond J''. (t\ A hill <?!«'? J miles: A hill A pon^c -iS 30 45 •a a Lftndin^ puce Harford MonowAijS '-^QTefct River DucKforl-Q . Conccricur Rlv«r fl b»d holt '' •■t) ■.. o 4ld47mi Ttvt p&rh.-from 'B*n m Provic/tnee ft wigwim PRoi/iDtNceV\ aekconk olkin- ^ -J^i "^ 4td47mi' 22' J5 4/ J' S Q The Roads from Boston to Connecticut River in 1642 This represents the country along the old Bay Path, and has great historical interest from the fact that out of its making grew the long dispute with Connecticut over the boundary. The "4 Wigwams" at about the center of the southern trail, stood on the site of what is now Woodstock. "Monoways river" was the Quinebaug. North of Springfield are the "High Hills" of the Holyoke range. The "liigh Hills" to the east are the Wilbraham mountains. The wigwam with the two ponds nearby is the site of Brookfield. Woodward and Saffery probably saw from there Watchusett mountain and the Indians told them the name, which is on the map as "Wathuget hill." Nipant river is the Blackstone. East of there the trail led across the Charles river into Boston. Oronoco is Westfield. The "Fery Place," on the Connecticut river, was known as "Bissell's Ferry," down to modern times. us t j3 i^ ?.%!^Wawaas Dutch Map of the Connecticut Valley The original is a colored copper plate engraving, measuring 18 X 21 inches in size, and is extremely valuable. It is known as Van Der Donck's and was drawn by N. Visscher, who took it from the map of Jasper Danker, published about 16S0. It gets its name from the fact that it was used by Van Der Donck in his book, "Description of New Netherlands," published in 1656. The place on Westfield river is "Pynchon's trading house," later Westfield. "Mr. Pinsers Cleyne Val" is "Mr. Pynchon's little falls." Versche Rievier is Fresh River. To the south are Pacquanack, Voynser (Windsor,) Herford, (Hartford,) Watertuyn (Watertown,) Wethersfield, Hoeren Eylant (Heron Island.) The various animals scattered here and there repre- sent the supposed habitat of these beasts. Q a a Agawam River, 1803 This map of the Agawam river was filed with a petition to the general court, by Jonathan Dwight and others, asking that the bed of the river be changed. No disposition was made of the matter by the legislature, beyond the issuance of an order of notice. In 1814, another petition for the same change was presented, but the petitioners were given leave to withdraw. The actual straightening of the course of the river was pro- vided for by Chapter 59, Acts of 1820, approved February 13, 1821. Apparently, the upper mouth was cut through at the place marked, "21 rods from bank to bank." This made the large island; then a short cut was made across the neck, which made the small island. The first toll bridge is supposed to have been built in 1805, but it is shown on this map of 1803. The first church shown is the building prior to the one now standing. It stood back from Main street, as shown, allowing for the future Court Square. Ferry lane was the road to the ferry and is now Cypress street. The road to the bridge is now Bridge street. The petitioners desired the bed of the river changed, so that there would be more land which could be cultivated. The map had the following note: "The survey was taken on the northerly side of the river, and from its mouth to A, opposite the end of the prick line, it measured two miles and 102 rods. Where the edge of the figure is marked with a full stroke, it signifies a high bank. Perhaps the prick line from B to C, on the creek a little south of said line, will be the most eligible place to turn the river, where the line measures 176 rods." One of the remonstrants stated that it was "not practicable to turn the river from its present bed so as to give it a straight course through the east side of the middle meadow pond, as the river does not, for a considerable distance up the stream, run in a direction leading to this pond." This establishes the location of the elusive, but locally famous, "Middle Meadow." VvG.V^K^^'^V^^"^ Changes in the Agawam Delta On July IS, 1836, William Pynchon bought of the Indians "all that ground and muckeosquittaj, or meadows, viz, on the other side of Quana, and all the ground and muckeosquittaj on the side of Agaam, except cottonackeesh, or ground that is now planted." John Holyoke made the following note when he recorded the deed in 1679. "Agaam or Agawam. It is that meadow on the south of Agaam river, where ye English did first build a house, which ye Indians do cal Agawam, and that now we commonly cal ye house meadow. That piece of ground it is which ye Indians do cal Agawam, and that the English kept the residence who first came to plant and settle at Springfield, now so called; and at the place was, :is is supposed, that this purchase was made of the Indians." "^^ 3 J^CT^f meadow &a^ U'JVortk //^« 'Ji^ Springfield in 1794 The location of the United States small-arms manufactory is designated by the "arsenal." together with the "magazine," at what later became Magazine Street. The jail was then on Main Street. Mill River had not been dammed, and Water- shops pond did not exist. Two "Goose Ponds" are shown, which have entirely disappeared. But two streets run west from M.iin — Elm and Cypress Streets. The Mill River valley was quite a manufacturing center, with a paper mill, a fulling mill, various saw mills and grist mills. A duck factory was on the north side of the "Road to the Upper Ferry." now Cypress Street. The "Meeting House" is the one shown on the map of the Acawam River. ■6 g a a a This shows the North meeting house, later Ireland parish, and now the Northampton Street section of Holyoke. The church was originally the property of the Second Baptist church of West Springfield. It was built in 1792, about one-half mile south of the present church, but there was not sufficient money to finish the inside. After a few years, the Congregationalists joined in moving the build- ing north and completing it. It was com- pleted in 1811 and occupied until 1826. The Great Falls, where the saw mill and the corn mill are, is the site of the Holyoke dam. The road to Hanover and Dartmouth college is now the road to Northampton. The Iron works are just below Ashley ponds, in the valley of Bear Hole brook. Dr. Lath- rop's meeting house is the site of the church on the Common in West Springfield, and was built in 1703. The South meeting house was that of the First Congregational society of Agawam. It was built in 1760, but was never completely finished. In 1779, it was taken down and moved to Feeding Hills and re-erected, where it remained incomplete until 1821, when it was finished. The saw mill and corn mill, just north of the island in the Agawam river, are where the Ramapogue Ice Company is now located. On February 21, 1649, there was "granted Deacon Samuel Chapin (of St. Gaudensfame) a parcel of land by Agawam Falls." This is what is known as the "Original Mill Grant," and has been used for manufactur- ing ever since. * The two smaller islands in the Agawam river are at Mittineague. The road from Hartford to Pittsfield is at Feeding Hills, and the ranges of hills to the west are Provin mountain, the Bear Hole range, Mount Tom, etc. The corn mill, next above Dr. Lathrop's meeting house, is by Holy Smoke spring on the Holyoke road. The saw mill, north of the two small islands in the Agawam, is on the brook about half way between Mittineague and Tatham. West Springfield in 1795 . r 'Worttjte.r' U1- ^ J Shirt Town 32. mUts.^.v'^ jw^n- rJ r*!)^'' f-y'c^/'^c^^t/ ^'^^f^^ I -a c ■c a •s to Connectitu.t7f.fnm Jftc J2a C/iaim FallR. 60 liitki. 3 Corn- Afilli \ to, JBrtdglS ■■.■.•■■■■■.■.•■Jtatt.4s ThU PLAN ts !ciid doujn "^/"U Greenfield in 1794 This map was made by David Hoit, Jr., of Deerfield. Tlie Meeting House was at "Trap Plain," and the road is now known as Silver Street. It was opposite the house in latter days occupied by Lemuel A. Long. It was built in 1766, though not completed until 1773. The present Main Street was laid out in 1749. The road from the west end of Main Street to the Country Farms was laid out in 1736. The road from the church to the proprietors' road (Silver Street) was laid out in 1760. The road from the church to the Bernardston line was laid out in 1763. The road from the street to the church (now Federal Street) was laid out in 1788. The "fourteen foot fall" was at Turner's Falls. The first dam at Turner's Falls was built by Capt. Elisha Mack in 1793. It was originally attempted at a point two miles below the falls at Smead's Island, but prtw'ed impractic- able on account of the depth of water and was abandoned after considerable labor and expense. Twenty-five houses are shown in the town plot. 4^ o^-^^ ^^uJ& i3 a Q Northampton in 1794 Tlie church shown is the third building of the First Church. It was built in 1736 and pulled down in 1813. The church, court house and school house were in a line. The court house was built of the materials taken from the second church and was occupied until 1813. Porneroy's Inn was built by Asahel Pomeroy in 1794. It was later known as the Warner House and here Lafayette stopped in 182S. Edward's Inn was in 1S27 known as Moody's "l^n Vfrn. Stndd.Trd's Island is now known as Shepherd's "Island. The Island were just changes in the river which formed Elwell's beginning when this map was made. Clark's Ferry is the site of the first bridge, built in 1808 The Canal Dam on the Connecticut was the dam built for power at South Hadley Falls. At the "Mineral Mountains'' was the lead mine discovered by Robert Lyman in 1679. The "Mineral Company" was formed that >ear, the town relinquishing "all their right in that mine lying about six miles off, at the west side of the town." Other companies ha\o worked these hills at \ arious times since. m%im^ OF mimm 1 Q 0. a a •ffit. •y Ctnwt,j BrvoA field jo^ Miifs. <* ^ RffiMtU diftameU eAtSAire Touin JtMihs. lia.nd ri>i/(ftdlu Water, ^ ertimo-tion. 441^ oc^«, Deerfield in 1794 •3^ This map was made by David Hoit, Jr., of Deertield. The mill near the canal was at the South Meadow. In recognition of the public spirit of Colonel Joseph Stebbins, and his brother, Asa Stebbins, in building a grist mill at this point, the town agreed that it should be forever free from tax. The mill was burned in 1838, but was rebuilt at once, and was finally destroyed by floods. Around the water power developed by the Stebbins brothers, .Mill \'lllaec prow up. Xearby was the ferry of Church Moiidoll. who .-iol^ to Stebbins ■ of tlic land needed for the dam. Israel Russell of Sunderland owned the ferry that in modern times was known as \\"hittemoro"s ferry. Cobb's Ferry was owned b\ Jonathan Cobb. It was later known as Rice's Ferry to Montague. The ferry of Benjamin Swan was at the point where the railroad now crosses the river at Cheapside. Harris Ferry is at the point where the bridge to Sunderland now crosses the Connecticut. The church shown in the town plot was built in 172'). It wa.< the third building of the church, and was used until 1S24. 10 •s '^^« Iff. UMJ^ PTON Ireland Parish, now Holyoke, in 1827 The Xorthampton Street district was still the important section of the town. The dam had not yet been built, although there was a cotton factory at the falls. The "Iron Works" of 1794, below Ashley ponds, had given way to a cement factory. Southampton had established its claim to the northwest corner, which was in doubt in 1794. Seven schools, two churches and one inn are in evidence. s s g t s Q 11 Springfield in 1827 The Agawam river still had but one outlet into the Connecticut, and Bondi's Island was not yet cut away from the mainland. Mill river had been dammed; the Upper, Middle and Lower Watershops were in operation. The town brook still ran along by Main street, and one Goose pond has ceased to exist. Water street had been opened from Bridge to Court and Ferry L.ine had become Ferrv Street.